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Explaining intention to reduce red and processed meat in the UK and Italy using the Theory of Planned Behaviour, meat-eater identity, and the Transtheoretical Model.

Wolstenholme, E., Carfora, V., Catellani, P., Poortinga, V. & Whitmarsh, L. (2021). Appetite, 166, 105467. 

Why do consumers intend to purchase natural food? Integrating theory of planned behavior, value-belief-norm theory, and trust.

Carfora, V., Cavallo, C., Catellani, P., Giudice, T.D., & Cicia, G. (2021). Nutrients, 13, 1904. 

A cognitive-emotional model to explain message framing effects: Reducing meat consumption. 

Carfora, V., Pastore, M. & Catellani, P. (2021). Frontiers in Psychology, 12, 583209. 

Hindsight bias and electoral outcomes: Satisfaction counts more than winner-loser status

Bertolotti, M. & Catellani, P. (2021). Social Cognition, 39, 201–224. 

Framing messages on the economic impact of climate change policies: Effects on climate believers and climate skeptics

Bertolotti, M., Catellani, P., & Nelson, T. (2021). Environmental Communication, 15, 715-730. 

How expert witnesses’ counterfactuals influence causal and responsibility attributions of mock jurors and expert judges. 

Catellani, P., Bertolotti, M., Vagni, M., & Pajardi, D. (2021). Applied Cognitive Psychology, 35, 3-17.   

British-Journal-of-Social-PsychologyMilesi, P. e Catellani, P. (2011). British Journal of Social Psychology, 50, 690-706pdf


An intriguing question for scholars of collective action is how participants of unsuccessful actions become re-engaged in future collective activities. At an individual level, previous research has shown that after negative outcomes counterfactual thoughts (‘if only … ’) may serve to prepare for future action. In the current research, we investigated whether counterfactuals may also prepare for future action at a collective level. After a defeat of their party at the regional elections, 163 political activists rated their agreement with abstract (as opposed to concrete) and party-focused (as opposed to other-focused) counterfactuals about how the elections outcome might have been better. Results showed that abstract counterfactuals, dealing with the core elements of the elections, supported collective action intention better than concrete ones. Consistent with the recent developments of dual-pathway models of collective action, counterfactuals predicted collective action intention through the mediation of group efficacy and group identification. In particular, while both party- and other-focused abstract counterfactuals increased group efficacy, only other-focused abstract counterfactuals increased group identification. Discussion focuses on how the investigation of counterfactuals can enlarge our knowledge of the socio-cognitive antecedents of collective action.


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Patrizia Catellani

Professore ordinario
di Psicologia Sociale
Dipartimento di Psicologia
Università Cattolica di Milano
Largo Gemelli, 1
I-20123 Milano
Tel: 02-72342906
Cell.: 3356741468
Fax: 02-72342280