Catellani, P. (2011). In Catellani, P. e Sensales, P. (a cura di). Psicologia della politica. Cortina, Milano, pp. 97-112.
The relation between negative political communication and participation is taken into account first. Then the effects of attacks on citizens' judgments of politicans are considered. The various ways through which politicians defend themselves from attacks are then taken into account, as well as the effects on citizens' judgments.